A fat embolism originates in the bone marrow and occurs after a fracture when a fat globule is released into the bloodstream.Clients with long bone fractures are at the greatest risk for the development of a fat embolism.Fat embolism can occur within the first 48 – 72 hours following the injury.
Assessment Finding Often Suggest Pulmonary Embolism.
- Restlessness , hypoxemia, or mental status changes
- Tachycardia and hypotension
- Dyspnoea and tachypnoea
- Petechial rash over the upper chest and neck; these may fade quickly.
nursing fundamentals review
- 1. Notify the physician
- 2. Administer oxygen
- 3. Administer intravenous fluids
- 4. Monitor vital signs and respiratory status
- 5. Prepare for intubation and mechanical ventillation if necessary
- 6. Document the event, actions taken , and the client’ s response.
- Oxygen and iv hydration id administered to prevent hypovolemic shock.
|Birth||Hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B )|
|2 Month||Inactivated poliovirus vaccine ( IPV );Diphtheria,Tetanus,Acellular pertussis(DTaP) vaccine;Hemophillus influenza type b conjugate vaccine ( Hib); Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ( PCV ),Rotavirus ( RV )|
|4 Months||DTaP, Hib ,IPV , PCV, RV|
|6 Monnths||DTaP ,Hib ,Hep B ,IPV,PCV,RV ( dose may be needed depending on type of vaccine used for first and second doses)|
|12-15 Months||Hib ,measels , mumps , rubella ( MMR )vaccine; PCV; Hepatitis A first dose ( second dose is given 6 months after the first dose); varicella vaccine.|
|18-21 Months||Hepatitis A|
|4- 6 Years||DTaP , IPV , MMR,Varicella vaccine|
|11- 12 Years||MMR ( If not administered at 4 – 6 years ) ; diphtheria,tetanus, acellular pertussis adoloscent preparation ( Tdap ) ;meningococcal vaccine (MCV4 ) ;Human pappiloma virus (HPV ) ( First dose is given to girls at age 11 – 12 years , second dose 2 months after fiest dose , and third dose 6 months after first dose )|
|Influenza vaccine is recommended annually for children age 6 months through 18 years|
1) A client with COPD is admitted to the medical surgical unit. To help this client maintain a patent airway and achieve maximal gas exchange the nurse should
a)instruct the client to drink 2L of fluid daily
b)Maintain the client on bed rest
c)Administer anxiolytics as prescribed ,to control anxiety
d)Administer pain medication as prescribed